is financial performance at time t for firm i measured by
either the market-to-book ratio or return on assets.
is managerial ownership in percentage at time t in firm i
for the piecewise linear interval d. The applied intervals are: [0;0.5%],
[0.5;1%], [1;5%], [5;30%], and [30;100%]. OWi,t is non-piecewise
managerial ownership so that .
is financial performance at time t+1 as expected at time
t in firm i.
is the natural logarithm of the salary of the top 2
highest paid managers measured in $ at time t in firm i for the piecewise
linear interval c.
Other variable abbreviations: MarkCap is market capitalization.
BETA is stock market beta risk. CapExp is capital expenditures.
PPECap is total property, plant and equipment. OpeInc is
operating income. Sales is simply revenue on sales. LTDebt is
long-term debt. Assets is total assets. R&D is research and
development costs. DR&D is a dummy for missing R&D values. Adver
is marketing or advertising costs. DAdver is a dummy for missing
advertising values. DSAL is a dummy for missing salary values.
DIndust1 and DIndust2 are industry dummies. DExchange is a
stock exchange dummy. DIncorp is a dummy for country of incorporation.
are model parameters to be estimated by regression techniques.
e1,i , e2,i ,
and e3,i are the residual
errors for each equation and each firm i.